2020.  “Levels, Centers, and Peripheries:  The Spatio-Political Structure of International Societies.”  International Theory.  Preprint:  doi: 10.1017/S1752971920000160.

2019a. “Systems, Levels, and Structural Theory: Waltz’s Theory is Not a Structural Theory (and Why that Matters for IR Today).” European Journal of International Relations 25 (3): 904-930.

2019b. “What Do We Mean by Realism? And How – and What – Does Realism Explain?”  In Roberto Belloni, Vincent Della Sala, and Paul Viotti, eds. Fear and Uncertainty in Europe:  The Return of Realism.  London:  Palgrave Macmillan.

2017.  “Beyond Hierarchy.” In Ayse Zarakol, ed.  Hierarchies in World Politics.  Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press.

2015a.  “Normative versus Taxonomic Humanity:  Varieties of Human Dignity in the Western Tradition.”  Journal of Human Rights 14 (January): 1-22.

2015b.  “The Discourse of Anarchy in IR.”  International Theory 7 (November): 393-415.

2012a.  “The Differentiation of International Societies:  An Approach to Structural International Theory.”  European Journal of International Relations 18 (January): 147-172.

2012b.  “The Elements of the Structures of International Societies.”  International Organization 66 (Autumn): 609-643.

2009a.  “Rethinking Political Structures:  From ‘Ordering Principles’ to ‘Vertical Differentiation’ – and Beyond,” International Theory 1 (March): 49-86.

2009b.  “Yes a Myth:  A Reply to Kirkup and Evans.” Human Rights Quarterly 31 (February): 239-255 (co-author with Daniel Whelan).

2009c.  “The Reality of Western Support for Human Rights:  A Reply to Susan L. Kang.” Human Rights Quarterly 32 (November): 1030-1054 (co-author with Daniel Whelan).

2008a.  “Human Rights:  Both Universal and Relative (A Reply to Michael Goodhart).” Human Rights Quarterly 30 (February): 194-204.

2008b.  “Human Rights and Social Provision.” Journal of Human Rights 7 (June): 123-138.

2008c.  “The Ethics of Realism.”  In Christian Reus-Smit and Duncan Snidal, eds., The Oxford Handbook of International Relations.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

2007a.  “The Relative Universality of Human Rights.” Human Rights Quarterly 29 (May): 281-306.

2007b.  “The West, Economic and Social Rights, and the Global Human Rights Regime:  Setting the Record Straight.” Human Rights Quarterly 29 (November): 908-949 (co-author with Daniel Whelan).

2006.  “Sovereign Inequalities and Hierarchy in Anarchy:  American Power and International Society.” European Journal of International Relations 12 (June): 139-170.

2002. “Genocide and Humanitarian Intervention.” Journal of Human Rights 1 (March): 93-109.

1999. “Human Rights, Democracy, and Development.” Human Rights Quarterly 21 (August): 608-632.

1998. “Human Rights: A New Standard of Civilization?” International Affairs 74 (January): 1-24.

1988b. “Human Rights at the UN, 1955-85: The Question of Bias.” International Studies Quarterly 32 (September): 275-303.

1986b. “Human Dignity, Human Rights and Political Regimes.” American Political Science Review 80 (September): 801-17 (co-author with Rhoda E. Howard).

1986c. “International Human Rights: A Regime Analysis.” International Organization 40 (Summer): 599-642.

1985b. “In Search of the Unicorn: The Jurisprudence of the Right to Development,” and “The Theology of the Right to Development: A Reply to Alston,” California Western International Law Journal 15 (Summer): 473-509, 519-23.

1984b. “Human Rights and Development: Complementary or Competing Concerns?” World Politics 36 (January): 255-83.

1982c. “Human Rights and Human Dignity: An Analytic Critique of Non-Western Human Rights Conceptions.” American Political Science Review 76 (June): 303-16.

1980. “Natural Law and Right in Aquinas’ Political Thought.” Western Political Quarterly 33 (December): 520-35.